Is There a Temperature?

Physical matter at high energy, velocity and momenta, under extreme acceleration or deceleration, or by another particular circumstance, such as unusual complexity, does behave strangely. Talking about extremely high or low, by the familiar thermometer not measurable temperatures, leads us not only to the question, what is the temperature of such matter, but also to the question, whether the very concept of absolute temperature is applicable: Is there a temperature at all?

Tamás Sándor Biró, Is There a Temperature? Conceptual Challenges at High Energy, Acceleration and Complexity,  Springer Science+Business Media,  2011


Time After Time

Some models postulate an absolute beginning of time, others an everlasting universe or multiverse in which the big bang is a phase transition, and maybe there are myriads of big bangs. So the low entropy of the observable universe might be a random fluctuation – whereas elsewhere even opposite thermodynamic directions of time may arise. Perhaps the (or our) big bang just created the arrows of time, if it originated as some sort of pseudo-beginning in a quantum vacuum that has no direction of time. Thus it seems useful to conceptually distinguish an undirected microtime and a directed macrotime. It is even possible that time ends – although paradoxically, it may do so only temporarily.

Rüdiger Vaas, Time After Time — Big Bang Cosmology and the Arrows of Time w: Laura Mersini-Houghton, Rudy Vaas (red.) The Arrows of Time. A Debate in Cosmolog, Springer-Verlag, Berlin – Heidelberg, 2012(