Is There a Temperature?

Physical matter at high energy, velocity and momenta, under extreme acceleration or deceleration, or by another particular circumstance, such as unusual complexity, does behave strangely. Talking about extremely high or low, by the familiar thermometer not measurable temperatures, leads us not only to the question, what is the temperature of such matter, but also to the question, whether the very concept of absolute temperature is applicable: Is there a temperature at all?

Tamás Sándor Biró, Is There a Temperature? Conceptual Challenges at High Energy, Acceleration and Complexity,  Springer Science+Business Media,  2011

Link: http://www.springer.com/us/book/9781441980403